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KF5JRV > TODAY    12.06.19 13:45l 8 Lines 3616 Bytes #4 (0) @ WW
BID : 37936_KF5JRV
Subj: Todaay in History - Jun 12
Sent: 190612/1133Z 37936@KF5JRV.#NWAR.AR.USA.NA BPQ6.0.18

During the Spanish-American War, Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldoproclaim the independence of the Philippines after 300 years of Spanishrule. By mid-August, Filipino rebels and U.S. troops had ousted theSpanish, but Aguinaldo’s hopes for independence were dashed when theUnited States formally annexed the Philippines as part of its peacetreaty with Spain.The Philippines, a large island archipelago situated off Southeast Asia,was colonized by the Spanish in the latter part of the 16th century.Opposition to Spanish rule began among Filipino priests, who resentedSpanish domination of the Roman Catholic churches in the islands. In thelate 19th century, Filipino intellectuals and the middle class begancalling for independence. In 1892, the Katipunan, a secret revolutionarysociety, was formed in Manila, the Philippine capital on the island ofLuzon. Membership grew dramatically, and in August 1896 the Spanishuncovered the Katipunan’s plans for rebellion, forcing premature actionfrom the rebels. Revolts broke out across Luzon, and in March 1897,28-year-old Emilio Aguinaldo became leader of the rebellion.By late 1897, the revolutionaries had been driven into the hillssoutheast of Manila, and Aguinaldo negotiated an agreement with theSpanish. In exchange for financial compensation and a promise of reformin the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his generals would accept exile inHong Kong. The rebel leaders departed, and the Philippine Revolutiontemporarily was at an end.ADVERTISEMENTIn April 1898, the Spanish-American War broke out over Spain’s brutalsuppression of a rebellion in Cuba. The first in a series of decisiveU.S. victories occurred on May 1, 1898, when the U.S. Asiatic Squadronunder Commodore George Dewey annihilated the Spanish Pacific fleet atthe Battle of Manila Bay in the Philippines. From his exile, Aguinaldomade arrangements with U.S. authorities to return to the Philippines andassist the United States in the war against Spain. He landed on May 19,rallied his revolutionaries, and began liberating towns south of Manila.On June 12, he proclaimed Philippine independence and established aprovincial government, of which he subsequently became head.His rebels, meanwhile, had encircled the Spanish in Manila and, with thesupport of Dewey’s squadron in Manila Bay, would surely have conqueredthe Spanish. Dewey, however, was waiting for U.S. ground troops, whichbegan landing in July and took over the Filipino positions surroundingManila. On August 8, the Spanish commander informed the United Statesthat he would surrender the city under two conditions: The United Stateswas to make the advance into the capital look like a battle, and underno conditions were the Filipino rebels to be allowed into the city. OnAugust 13, the mock Battle of Manila was staged, and the Americans kepttheir promise to keep the Filipinos out after the city passed into theirhands.While the Americans occupied Manila and planned peace negotiations withSpain, Aguinaldo convened a revolutionary assembly, the Malolos, inSeptember. They drew up a democratic constitution, the first ever inAsia, and a government was formed with Aguinaldo as president in January1899. On February 4, what became known as the Philippine Insurrectionbegan when Filipino rebels and U.S. troops skirmished inside Americanlines in Manila. Two days later, the U.S. Senate voted by one vote toratify the Treaty of Paris with Spain. The Philippines were now a U.S.territory, acquired in exchange for $20 million in compensation to theSpanish.

73 de Scott KF5JRV


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